MOBI is working with ecosystem stakeholders to create an implementation framework, reference architecture, and data schemas for an industry-wide secure data management system that can be used to improve the visibility and sustainability of the global battery value chain. Read about the MOBI Battery Initiative here!

Increasing demand for batteries in consumer electronics, electric vehicles (EVs), and grid support has accelerated the global market. In the U.S. alone, batteries landed in the top 3 imports for September 2021. Globally, EVs are projected to make up 31% of all light-duty vehicles by 2050. This increased demand puts pressure on battery manufacturers, suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to ensure a safe, secure, efficient, and sustainable global battery value chain.

As demand skyrockets, we’re seeing a surge in new regulations surrounding the composition, manufacturing, usage, and recycling of batteries around the globe. Battery labeling — which includes attaching physical labels to a battery to provide its unique characteristics, such as number of cells, cell chemistry, dimensions, and more — is of particular interest to regulators and battery supply chain stakeholders hoping to increase visibility and efficiency as well as reduce the margin of error in battery recycling, reuse, and repurposing procedures.

As demand skyrockets, we’re seeing a surge in new regulations surrounding the composition, manufacturing, usage, and recycling of batteries around the globe.

The European Commission (EC) lays out clear requirements for battery labeling in Directive 2006/66/EC and amendments to Regulation (EU) No 2019/1020. EC regulations specify size and location requirements for the label, stating that all batteries must meet these labeling requirements to be placed on the market in the EU. For example, the EU will require batteries measuring above 2 kWh to provide carbon footprint labeling.

The California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) Lithium-ion Car Battery Recycling Advisory Group also mentioned battery labeling in its final report, released in March 2022. The report suggests requiring California OEMs to attach standardized physical battery labels to help with reuse, repurposing, and recycling efforts. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) is also developing a labeling requirement as part of their proposed Advanced Clean Cars II regulation.

At MOBI, we believe that trusted multiparty track-and-trace systems are needed to effectively manage assets in the value chain, enhance interoperability between stakeholders, and empower consumers to make informed purchasing decisions with confidence. In addition to spurring second-life and recycling use cases, battery labeling is also necessary to enable trusted track-and-trace applications for battery manufacturers, OEMs, and consumers, as peer-to-peer traceability requires that all participants reference a standardized framework for identifying assets as they travel upstream and downstream the value chain. Labeling is a foundational element for recording battery State of Charge (SOC) and State of Health (SOH) data, managing battery-electric-grid integration, tracking maintenance and repairs, managing recalls, and more.

Labeling is a foundational element for recording battery State of Charge (SOC) and State of Health (SOH) data, managing battery-electric-grid integration, tracking maintenance and repairs, managing recalls, and more.

In July 2022, MOBI released the Battery Identification Number (BIN) Technical Specifications, which specifies the format, content, and physical requirements for a globally unique identity of battery packs. The BIN is composed of a Battery Manufacturer Identifier (BMI), a Battery Descriptor Section (BDS), and a Battery Identifier Section (BIS), each of which denotes a battery’s specific characteristics, integrated with a unique and traceable identity. Similar to the vehicle identification number (VIN), the BIN is designed to be a physical indelible identity included on the battery’s physical label. The unique BIN number can be included as an attribute in a digital identity such as the one standardized by MOBI called Battery Birth Certificate, based on World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Verifiable Credentials (VCs) and Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) Standards.

In 2021 and 2022, MOBI developed a pilot to demonstrate a traceability flow for maintaining a verifiable chain of custody in the EV battery supply chain with multiple stakeholders. In the demonstration, a Battery Birth Certificate containing BIN information such as the battery’s serial number, energy capacity, and chemical composition was issued by the battery supplier. The battery certificate was linked with the Vehicle Birth Certificate (stored in a vehicle’s Self-Sovereign Digital Twin, or SSDT, as defined in MOBI VID Standards) when installed by the OEM.

The Battery SSDT is designed to be linked to a physical label on the battery, so that the physical label can be resolved to the battery’s digital identity, credentials, and other data. We aim to integrate these capabilities developed during the demonstration in the ongoing Battery SSDT and the Battery Passport initiatives.

MOBI’s Supply Chain Working Group is developing a guideline for the industry to use previously mentioned technology components in battery passports for reuse, repurposing, and recycling traceability. The Supply Chain Working Group contributors include Accenture, AIOI, Anritsu, Arxum, ASJade Tech, Aucnet, Autodata Group, AWS, Blockedge, BMW, CEVT, Dana, DENSO, DLT Labs, DMX, Fifth-9, Ford, Hitachi, Honda, IBM, IOTA, ITOCHU, Marelli, Mazda, Nara Institute, ParkMyFleet, Politecnico Di Torino, Quantstamp, R3, Reply, State Farm, Stellantis, SyncFab, Thirdware, TICO, and Vinturas.

MOBI Battery Initiative Standards

MOBI is continually developing standards for the industry; working with the EU and other regulators to review specifications and create compliant frameworks and guidelines; and performing pilots to explore new methods of estimating greenhouse gas emissions, ensuring ethical material sourcing, improving recycling processes, and more. Stay tuned for more battery standards!

1. MOBI BIN Technical Specifications

The BIN Technical Specifications specifies the format, content, and physical requirements for a globally unique identity of battery packs, similar to the ISO VIN Standard. The standard is open for a 60-day review period. Community and industry colleagues are invited to review and give feedback to improve the standard using this form: dlt.mobi/bin-feedback/.

MOBI BIN0003/TS/2022 — VERSION 1.0

2. MOBI Battery SOH Business White Paper

The Battery SOH White Paper examines the state of the art for SOH tracking, outlines key uses for SOH tracking in business applications and regulatory compliance, and defines potential next steps for bringing SOH tracking applications to scale.

MOBI SOH0001/WP/2022 — VERSION 1.0